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同等学力│英语备考:典型时态和特殊用法
2017-11-16     来源:启慧学院

1. 一般现在时:(1)表示已经预先计划或安排好的肯定将要发生的动作.主要用于be, come, go, start, begin, 1eave, return, end, stop, open, take place等瞬间动词.句中常有表示将来的时间状语。(2)在时间、条件、方式、让步状语从句中.表示将来的动作。如: The match takes place next Monday. / I will not go shopping, if it rains.

2. 现在进行时: (1)表示最近按计划或安排要做的事,往往有表示未来的时间状语. 能够这样用的动词有: arrive, come, leave, return, start, work, play, have等.(2) 与always, constantly, continually, forever等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在出状态,往往带有说话人的感情色彩。(3)在时间、条件从句中表示将来正在进行的动作。如:We are leaving on Friday. / He is constantly leaving his things about. 他老是乱扔东西./ Don’t interrupt him if he is reading.

3. 现在完成时: 1)将来完成用法: 用于时间、条件状语从句中,说明将来某时刻以前动作完成的情况。2)用在固定结构中:往往是在定语从句中。3) ① "must + 完成式”表示过去必定发生过的事情,是对发生在过去的一种行为的推测。② “should (或ought to) + 完成式”表示一个应该在过去做,而没有做的动作,它往往带有埋怨和后悔的情绪。如: 1) I’ll go with you as soon as I have finished my work. / It’s (will be) the first time I have been there.

注: ①表示瞬间行为动词come, join, finish, marry, return等不能和表示延续的时间状语连用, 只能用系动词加表语结构来代替。如: He has been back for over a week. (不能用has come back) / I have been in the army for three years. (不能用have joined) ② since "自从…"以来;for表示时间,从过去开始延续至今,它们都是现在完成时的典型信号词。③ 句子中有表示过去时的时间副词(如yesterday, last week, in 1990, ago)时,不能使用现在完成时要用过去时态。

4. 现在完成进行时: 现在完成进行时表示动作从过去某一时间开始,一直延续到现在,可能还要继续下去,通常与表示一段时间的状语连用。如: All the morning, for hours, since this morning… / They have been watching television for two hours. / He has been writing letters since this morning.

5. 过去完成时:

1) 过去完成时,表示在过去某—时刻或动作以前已经完成厂的动作.即”过去的过去”.常用的信号词有by(到……时候为止), before等介词短语或用unless, when, after, once, as soon as等连词引起的表示到过去某—时间为止的时间状语来表示.

2) 过去完成时常用在"no sooner…than”,和”hardly…when (before)”等句型的主句中,从句中常用一般过去时。如: By the end of last year, I had worked in this college for ten years. / No sooner had he finished his performance than the audience began to cheer. (=He had no sooner…than…) (他刚表演完观众就喝采)

6.其它要注意的时态

1) be going to口语中常用,表示最近打箅要做的事情; 根据某种迹象表明可能要发生的事情。如:What are you going to do this evening? / Look at the cloud. It is going to rain.

2) 过去将来时,多见于主句谓语动足一般过去时的宾语从句中。如:He said that he would get married soon.

3) 过去进行时主要用法之一是描述一件事发生的背景,往往在一个动作发生的过程中,突然发生第二个戏剧性的动作.第二个戏剧性动作为一般过去时,由when或while引出,意为”此时”。有二种句型: My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. / Tom slipped into the house when no one was looking. / Someone knocked at the door while I was taking a shower. / Just as I was opening the door, the telephone rang.

4) 如果两个动作都引人注目且同时发生,并没有一个比另一个更形象,更主要时,那么两个动作都可以用过去进行时。如:My husband was reading while I was cooking.

7. 有些动词以主动形式出现,却有被动含义。 如:The knife cuts well. / Nylon underwear washes easily. 尼龙内衣容易洗 / The novels written by the young man sell well. 那个年青人写的小说销路好 / This ball-pen writes in four colours. 这支园珠笔可以写出四种颜色 / The note reads as follows”…”. 字条上写着:”……”

8. 短语动词构成的被动语态中,介词或副词不可省略。如:More schools and hospitals will be set up in the near future. / The old woman has been operated on. (这位老妇人已经动过了手术) / The purse was picked up and handed to the police.

此外,固定搭配 “动词 + 名词 + 介词” 习语中,介词也不能省掉。 Time must be made good use of./ Less clever children should not be made fun of.


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